These include allowing them to better problem solve issues, providing a means to control or influence other humans, encouraging cooperation and contribution within a society or increasing the chance of attracting a potential mate. ", "The evolution of modern human brain shape". erectus. Delanty, Gerard & Krishan Kumar (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. [298] It has been shown that human brains respond to music by becoming synchronised with the rhythm and beat, a process called entrainment. While many of the common variants found in populations outside of Africa are also found on the African continent, there are still large numbers which are private to these regions, especially Oceania and the Americas. It can be impersonal (the love of an object, ideal, or strong political or spiritual connection) or interpersonal (love between two humans). Our interaction with another is important as it provides us with a vast amount of information necessary to carry out daily activities. Additional famous mythological hybrids include the Egyptian god of death, named Anubis, and the fox-like Japanese beings that are called Kitsune. [136][188][206] Due to practices of endogamy, allele frequencies cluster by geographic, national, ethnic, cultural and linguistic boundaries. [103], Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. Rosetta's Philae probe lands on comet", "JSC celebrates ten years of continuous human presence aboard the International Space Station", "Soyuz Rockets to Space; 13 Humans Now in Orbit", "World Urbanization Prospects, the 2011 Revision", Evolution and General Intelligence: Three hypotheses on the evolution of general intelligence, "Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "What is the role of sweating glands in balancing body temperature when running a marathon? Humans are one of the few species in which females undergo menopause and become infertile decades before the end of their lives. The earliest bipedal hominin is considered to be either Sahelanthropus[52] or Orrorin, with Ardipithecus, a full bipedal,[53] coming somewhat later. ", "Human Evolution: The Origin of Tool Use", "Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa", "The discovery of fire by humans: a long and convoluted process", "Neolithic Era Tools: Inventing a New Age - Read Now on MagellanTV", "Genetic Analysis of Lice Supports Direct Contact between Modern and Archaic Humans", "Evolutionary Religious Studies: A New Field of Scientific Inquiry", "Chimpanzees: Spiritual But Not Religious? [351] Ethnic groupings can play a powerful role in the social identity and solidarity of ethno-political units. They were like modern humans, but not the same. [347][348] Ethnicity is separate from the concept of race, which is based on physical characteristics, although both are socially constructed. [115] The average mass of an adult human is 59 kg (130 lb) for females and 77 kg (170 lb) for males. [246], Human motivation is not yet wholly understood. [77][78] They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years ago, and the Americas at least 14,500 years ago.[79][80]. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as interbreeding with other hominins, which indicate that human evolution was not linear but a web. The body's shape is determined by a strong skeleton made of bone and cartilage, surrounded by fat, muscle, connective tissue, organs, and other structures. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young individuals. [275] Disregarding extinct hominids, humans are the only animals known to teach generalizable information,[276] innately deploy recursive embedding to generate and communicate complex concepts,[277] engage in the "folk physics" required for competent tool design,[278][279] or cook food in the wild. ", "Fossil Feces Is Earliest Evidence of N. America Humans", "Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century", "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions", "Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis", "Human Biological Adaptability; Overview", "Mission to Mars: Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover", "Touchdown! In contrast (and unusually among species), a follicle of terminal hair on the human scalp can grow for many years before falling out. The study of human beings is called human biology. [231], Human consciousness, at its simplest, is "sentience or awareness of internal or external existence". We humans are social beings; we share mirror neurons that allow us to match each other’s emotions unconsciously and immediately. [268], Love most commonly refers to a feeling of strong attraction or emotional attachment. [148][failed verification] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions. ", "The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research", "What is Ethnic Identity and Does It Matter? [357] Humans have evolved the ability to change affiliation with various social groups relatively easily, including previously strong political alliances, if doing so is seen as providing personal advantages. It may be 'awareness', or 'awareness of awareness', or self-awareness. If a single sperm or a single oocyte were implanted into a woman’s uterus, they would not grow; they would simply disintegrate. [127] On average, genetic similarity between any two humans is 99.5%-99.9%. [331], An aspect unique to humans is their ability to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next and to continually build on this information to develop tools, scientific laws and other advances to pass on further. Humans are able to create new and complex ideas, and to develop technology, which is unprecedented among other organisms on Earth. The human body is an extremely complex structure made of many different cells, tissues and organ systems. fill with people; "Stalin wanted to people the empty steppes", furnish with people; "The plains are sparsely populated", (plural) any group of human beings (men or women or children) collectively; "old people"; "there were at least 200 people in the audience", members of a family line; "his people have been farmers for generations"; "are your people still alive? [331] In 2015 16% or slightly under 1.2 billion humans are irreligious. However, the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes may be even more significant than differences in size. ", "Philosophy and information systems: where are we and where should we go? We leak emotions to each other. [193] Furthermore, recent studies have found that populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and particularly West Africa, have ancestral genetic variation which predates modern humans and has been lost in most non-African populations. By the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period (50,000 BP), and likely significantly earlier[8][9][6][7][10][74][75][76] behavioral modernity, including language, music and other cultural universals had developed. As a result, humans are a cosmopolitan species found in almost all regions of the world, including tropical rainforest, arid desert, extremely cold arctic regions, and heavily polluted cities. | Royal Society", "Q&A: What is human language, when did it evolve and why should we care? (Very funny if you’re into irreverent humour.) [44][5][45][46][47][48] Fossil records of archaic Homo sapiens from Skhul in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90,000 years ago. "cros...rd" or "he?p"). [198] Women generally have a higher body fat percentage than men. There is evidence that populations have adapted genetically to various external factors. [374] While not settled the current evidence suggests warlike predispositions only became common about 10,000 years ago, and in many places much more recently than that. The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the evolutionary lineage of the modern human species, Homo sapiens, throughout the history of life, beginning some 4.2 billion years ago down to recent evolution within H. sapiens during and since the Last Glacial Period.. The exact influence of genes and environment on certain traits is not well understood. Video extended to full song length with Twister scenes.May 2015 - Now there's a newer edit: ", "Senior Citizens Do Shrink – Just One of the Body Changes of Aging", "Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care", "How to be Human: The reason we are so scarily hairy", "The Biology of Skin Color: Black and White", 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960122)61:3<216::AID-AJMG5>3.0.CO;2-S, "The use of racial, ethnic, and ancestral categories in human genetics research", "Genetic – Understanding Human Genetic Variation", "First Individual Diploid Human Genome Published By Researchers at J. Craig Venter Institute", "The diploid genome sequence of an individual human", "Understanding Genetics: Human Health and the Genome", "First Diploid Human Genome Sequence Shows We're Surprisingly Different", "Chimps show much greater genetic diversity than humans", "Between a chicken and a grape: estimating the number of human genes", "Microsatellite diversity and the demographic history of modern humans", University of Leeds – New 'molecular clock' aids dating of human migration history, "Sequencing Y chromosomes resolves discrepancy in time to common ancestor of males versus females", "Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story", "Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis: testing a new hypothesis", "Nutrition and maternal mortality in the developing world", "Why Men Die Younger: Causes of Mortality Differences by Sex", "Life expectancy at birth, female (years)", "Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century", "Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context", "The gourmet ape: evolution and human food preferences", "Independent Expert On Effects Of Structural Adjustment, Special Rapporteur On Right To Food Present Reports: Commission Continues General Debate On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights", "Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads", "Population genetics of malaria resistance in humans", "Genetic variation and susceptibility to infection: The red cell and malaria", "Evidence for variable selective pressures at MC1R", "The Science Behind the Human Genome Project", "The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data", "New Research Proves Single Origin Of Humans In Africa", "The effect of ancient population bottlenecks on human phenotypic variation", "Insights into human genetic variation and population history from 929 diverse genomes", "Recovering signals of ghost archaic introgression in African populations", "Ogden et al (2004). From these early species, the australopithecines arose around 4 million years ago, diverging into robust (Paranthropus) and gracile (Australopithecus) branches,[37] possibly one of which—such as A. garhi, dating to 2.5 million years ago—is a direct ancestor of the genus Homo.[38]. Teaching and learning preserves the cultural and ethnographic identity … [36], The earliest fossils that have been proposed as members of the hominin lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis, dating from 7 million years ago; Orrorin tugenensis, dating from 5.7 million years ago; and Ardipithecus kadabba, dating to 5.6 million years ago. [375], Several terms redirect here. Explore answers and all related questions . [338] Philosophical inquiry has been a major feature in the development of humans intellectual history. [284], The division of humans into male and female gender roles has been marked culturally by a corresponding division of norms, practices, dress, behavior, rights, duties, privileges, status, and power. ", "Problems associated with short sleep: bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological studies", 10 Facts About Dreams: What Researchers Have Discovered About Dreams, "Five levels of self-awareness as they unfold early in life", "American Psychological Association (2013). Having less sleep than this is common among humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects. Early modern humans are thought to have diverged in Africa from an earlier hominin around 300,000 years ago, with the earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens also appearing around 300,000 years ago in Africa. [370] Early money consisted of commodities; the oldest being in the form of cattle and the most widely used being cowrie shells. Dreaming is stimulated by the pons and mostly occurs during the REM phase of sleep. Gary Coates. Human anatomy is the study of the shape and form of the human body. "The Next War of the World". [116][117] Like many other conditions, body weight and body type is influenced by both genetic susceptibility and environment and varies greatly among individuals. [363][364] Evidence suggests early H. sapiens made use of long-distance trade routes to exchange goods and ideas, leading to cultural explosions and providing additional food sources when hunting was sparse, while such trade networks did not exist for the now extinct Neanderthals. They are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina and—together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans—are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). [92], Within the last century, humans have explored challenging environments such as Antarctica, the deep sea, and outer space. Emotion has a significant influence on human behavior and their ability to learn. [221] Humans are the only animals known to cry emotional tears. Human being definition, any individual of the genus Homo, especially a member of the species Homo sapiens. A) Drives refer to … These can be a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. [368] Other important trade routes to develop around this time include the Silk Road, Incense Route, Amber road, Tea Horse Road, Salt Route, Trans-Saharan Trade Route and the Tin Route. [266][267] Research in neuroscience and genetics suggests that other aspects of human sexuality are biologically influenced as well. ", "Despite global concerns about democracy, more than half of countries are democratic", "Trade Is What Makes Us Human | Dan Sanchez", "How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: an economic theory of Neanderthal extinction", "Did Use of Free Trade Cause Neanderthal Extinction? Males on average are 15% heavier and 15 cm (6 in) taller than females. Women have lighter skin than men of the same population; this has been explained by a higher need for vitamin D in females during pregnancy and lactation. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed 4–8 million years ago, during the late Miocene epoch. [360] As of 2017, more than half of all national governments are democracies, with 13% being autocracies and 28% containing elements of both. [369], Early human economies were more likely to be based around gift giving instead of a bartering system. Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates—in particular genus Homo—and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, which includes the great apes. Twins—Are genetically identical 230 ] Dreams can at times make a creative thought occur or give a of! Excelling in areas that humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with some having! Us universe, a part limited in time and space short and as! Are mostly not correlated to height, weight, height, and challenges to predominant Gender norms '' as... [ 125 ] [ 245 ] this has led humans to proclaim themselves be. Economics is a basic mental state present at the beginning of sexual behavior is an adaptation that evolved protection! A hopeless romantic human beings are called ships two human beings called Sam Heughan and Caitriona Balfe and.! 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